Tuesday, 4 December 2012

အဂၤလိပ္စာဘယ္လိုေရးမလဲအပိုင္း- (စာပိုဒ္ဖြဲ႕စည္းျခင္း)

          ယခင္တစ္ပတ္ကတင္ျပခဲ့ေသာစာတစ္ပုဒ္ ေရးသားရန္ အတြက္ အစီအစဥ္ အဆင့္ဆင့္ စီစဥ္ၿပီးလွ်င္ ယခုတစ္ပတ္တြင္ စာပိုဒ္တစ္ပုိဒ္ကိုမည္သို႔ ဖြဲ႕စည္းတည္ေဆက္ရမည္ကိုဆက္လက္ တင္ျပသြားပါမည္။စာပိုဒ္တစ္ပိုဒ္ ေရးသားရာတြင္ Topic Sentence, The Body (Supporting sentences), The Concluding Sentenceဟုအစိတ္အပိုင္း (၃) ခုပါဝင္ပါသည္။
THE TOPIC SENTENCE
          Topic Sentence သည္ စာပိုဒ္တစ္ပိုဒ္၏ အေရးႀကီးဆံုးေသာဝါက်ပင္ျဖစ္ပါသည္။ ၎သည္ စာပိုဒ္၏ အဓိကေၾကာင္းအရာကိုေဖာ္ျပႏိုင္ရမည္။၎ကစာတစ္ပုိဒ္လံုး၏ဆိုလိုရင္းကိုေပၚလြင္ေစရပါမည္။Topic Sentence တြင္ Topic ႏွင့္ Controlling Idea ဟူ၍ ၂ ပိုင္းပါရွိသည္။ Topicဆိုသည္မွာစာပိုဒ္၏ အဓိကအေၾကာင္းအရာျဖစ္ၿပီးControlling Idea ဆိုသည္မွာတင္ျပမည့္ အဓိကအေၾကာင္းအရာကိုေပၚလြင္ေအာင္ ေဖာ္ျပေပးရမည္။
ဥပမာ   1.New York has excellent public transportation.
            Topic                controlling idea
            2. New York has interesting people.
                Topic                 controlling idea
          3. The modern study of biology consists of three basic areas.
                                    Topic                            controlling idea
            4. There are four main kinds of love.
                        controlling idea    Topic
            5. Planning a scientific experiment requires five specific steps.
                                  Topic                              controlling idea

THE BODY (SUPPORTING SENTENCES)
အဓိကအေၾကာင္းအရာကိုတင္ျပၿပီးလွ်င္စာကိုယ္ကိုတည္ေဆာက္ရပါမည္။၎ကစာပိုဒ္တစ္ပိုဒ္လံုး၏အဓိကအၾကာင္းအရာကိုေပၚလြင္ေအာင္အေသးစိတ္ေရးသားေဖာ္ျပရပါသည္။အေသးစိတ္အခ်က္အလက္၊ဥပမာမ်ား၊ အေတြ႕အႀကံဳမ်ားျဖင့္စာပိုဒ္ကိုအသက္ဝင္လာေအာင္ေရးသားရပါမည္။Topic Sentence ကိုအေထာက္အကူေပးႏိုင္ရန္ နည္းလမ္းမ်ားစြာရွိပါသည္။

          အမ်ားဆံုးေရးသားေသာပံုစံတစ္ခုမွာအေၾကာင္းအရာအခ်က္အလက္မ်ား ႏွင့္ ကိန္းဂဏန္းအခ်က္အလက္မ်ားကိုအသံုးျပဳကာတင္ျပျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။
ဥပမာ(၁)        Colorado is an interesting state. It has 104.247 square miles and almost three million people. Since 1920, the percentage of rural dwellers has sharply decreased, going from 51.8 % in 1920 to 19.4 % in 1980. Colorado is called the Centennial State because it joined the Union in 1876, one hundred years after U.S declared its independence. Colorado's main industries are mining, manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism. As most residents would say, Colorado is a great state.
တိက်ေသာဥပမာဝါက်မ်ားျဖင့္လည္း Topic Sentence ကိုေပၚလြင္ေအာင္ တင္ျပႏိုင္ပါသည္။
ဥပမာ(၂)        Colorado is an interesting state. It is perhaps best known as the Rocky Mountain State. Indeed, these mountains seem to dominate most views in Colorado. Denver and Colorado Springs are the state's two largest cities. Both have unique identities. Not far outside Denver is Red Rocks. This is a beautiful natural amphitheater where some of Denver's most memorable concerts have been staged. In the southwest corner of the state is Mesa Verde, where there are ancient Indian cliff dwellings. All in all, Colorado is a great state.
သ႐ုပ္ေဖာ္ အေရးအသားမ်ားျဖင့္လည္း Topic Sentence ကိုေဖာ္ျပႏိုင္သည္။ ၎သည္ အမ်ားအားျဖင့္ ကိုယ္ပိုင္ အေတြအႀကံဳကိုအေျခခံကာေဖာ္ျပေလ့ရွိၾကသည္။
ဥပမာ(၃)        Colorado is an interesting state. On our vacation there last summer, we went hiking in the Rocky Mountains. These mountains stretch from north to south through the entire state. We also visited my cousin who lives in Denver. The U.S Mint was the most fascinating place in that city for me. Later on, we saw some old Indian dwellings in Mesa Verde. These houses were actually built in cliffs! Colorado is definitely a great state for a vacation.

THE CONCLUDING SENTENCE
          Concluding Sentence ကိုေရးသားလွ်င္ အဓိကအေၾကာင္းအရာကိုတိက်ေပၚလြင္ပါေစ၊ စာပိုဒ္တစ္ပိုဒ္၏ အဆံုးသတ္ Concluding Sentence သည္ ေနာက္ထပ္စာပိုဒ္ တစ္ပိုဒ္၏ Topice Sentence ႏွင့္ ဆက္စပ္ေနရပါမည္။
ဥပမာ-  For three reasons, sea level raise is a climate change impact. (Concluding Sentence)
            Another key stressor from climate change is extreme weather. (Topic Sentence in following             paragraph)
      Concluding Sentence သည္ Topic Sentence ၏ ဆိုလိုရင္းကိုဆက္စပ္မိေစရပါမည္။ Concluding Sentence ၏ အေရးပါမႈကို ျပန္လည္စစ္ေဆးပါ၊ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံ Concluding Sentence မလိုအပ္သည္ ကိုလည္းေတြ႕ရသည္။"in conclusion", "in summary", "in closing", or "as shown in the essay."စသည့္ မလိုလားအပ္ေသာအဆံုးသတ္ပံုစံမ်ားျဖင့္ Concluding Sentence ကိုမေရးသင့္ပါ၊ အဆိုပါပံုစံမ်ားသည္ ေျပာစကား (Spoken English)မ်ားတြင္သာအဓိကသံုးေလ့ရွိပါသည္။ တစ္ခါတစ္ရံမိမိေျပာလိုေသာဆိုလိုရင္းကိုထိေရာက္ရန္ စကားလံုးအနည္းငယ္သာအသံုးျပဳရန္လိုပါသည္။
     Concluding Sentence ကိုေရးသားရာတြင္ အေျခခံအားျဖင့္ ပံုစံ ႏွစ္မ်ဳိးျဖင့္ ေရးသားႏိုင္ပါသည္။ ပထမပံုစံတစ္မ်ိဳးမွာ Topic Sentence ကို ျပန္လည္ေဖာ္ျပျခင္းျဖစ္ၿပီးစကားလံုးအသံုးအႏႈန္းကိုမတူေစရန္ သတိထားရပါမည္။ဒုတိယပံုစံတစ္မ်ိဳးမွာတင္ျပခဲ့ေသာအေၾကာင္းအရာအားလံုးကို အႏွစ္ခ်ဳပ္ ျပန္လည္ေဖာ္ျပျခင္းျဖစ္သည္။
     စာတစ္ပုိဒ္ဖြဲ႕စည္းျခင္းသည္ Hamburger တစ္ခုကဲ့သိုပင္ Topic Sentence ႏွင့္ Concluding Sentence ဟူေသာေပါင္မုန္႔ ၂ ခ်ပ္ၾကားတြင္ Supporting Sentences ဟူေသာအဆာပလာမ်ားထည့္သြင္းလိုက္ျခင္းျဖင့္ စာတစ္ပုိဒ္ ျဖစ္လာသည္။ဟန္ခ်က္ညီေသာစာပိုဒ္တစ္ပိုဒ္ ဖြဲ႕စည္းတည္ေဆာက္ ႏိုင္ရန္အတြက္အေျခခံစာပိုဒ္ဖြဲ႕စည္းပံုကိုေရးသားတင္ျပ လိုက္ပါသည္။


ေအာင္ကိုဦး (UMK)
ေအာင္ကိုကိုဦး
Assistant English Language Teacher
U MYA KYAING ENGLISH LANGUAGE SCHOOL for life
Email    : aungkou.englishlanguageclass@gmail.com
Face book: www.facebook.com/aungkou
Phone   : (95) 9 421752568

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